Type I alcoholics were found to have a late onset of alcohol abuse (i.e., after age twenty-five) and did not engage in criminal behavior. A study in Oregon provided an important clue in that mental illness, particularly severe mental illness, may be genetically related to violence. Criminals may be more likely to be involved in physical fights than noncriminals, and sustain head injuries as a result. They reject the idea that individuals have a choice, advocating that criminal behaviour is the result of biological defects and abnormalities. Perhaps a genetic predisposition toward violence may exist in the presence of some other unidentified mediator. To remedy this limitation, symptoms that contribute to the overall DSM-III diagnoses were counted to assess for subclinical manifestations of antisocial problems. ; Baker et al.). ‘‘Genetic and Environmental Factors in Antisocial Behavior Disorders.’’ In, CLONINGER, C. ROBERT; BOHMAN, MICHAEL; and SIGVARDSSON, SOREN. Until recently, the majority of criminological research focused solely on social contributors, either minimizing or negating the importance of genetic and biological influences on criminal behavior. ‘‘Genetic and Environmental Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Antisocial Personality.’’, CADORET, REMI; YATES, WILLIAM R.; TROUGHTON, ED; WOODWORTH, GEORGE; and STEWART, MARK A. The sample consisted of fifty-two adoptees (including twenty-seven males) born between 1925 and 1956 to a group of forty-one incarcerated female offenders. Moreover, the adoption design allows for the assessment of interaction effects between environmental and genetic influences. For example some primitive traits that were of importance in evolutionary times consisted of gall bladders, pubic hair and appendix. For instance, individuals with low levels of particular types of neurotransmitters have an increased likelihood of engaging in … One of the chief findings to emerge from the Swedish Adoption Study is evidence for a distinct, highly heritable form of alcoholism and criminality that may be transmitted from father to son (Cloninger et al., 1981). The emphasis on the index offense as opposed to the qualitative nature of the cumulative criminal history, however, may be interpreted as a weakness of this study. Mednick, Machon, and Huttenen hypothesized that a common etiological link between schizophrenia and violence may be a disturbance in fetal neural development in the second trimester. Several methodological flaws in earlier twin studies made it difficult to draw conclusions regarding genetic liability to criminal behavior. Evidence for the role of genetic factors in the etiology of criminal behavior carries the assumption that biological factors mediate this relationship. These recent advances may in fact represent an important sector of the future of biological research in the field of criminal behavior. Moreover, Dalgaard and Kringlen suggest that the greater similarity of MZ twins may be attributed to their shared environmental experiences. Social factors, on the other hand, cannot be inherited. Sex chromosomes are termed X and Y. For example, men have lots of sexual partners, but women are more selective due to the costs of pregnancy. The link between frontal dysfunction and impulsive, violent criminality is consistent with the notion that frontal lobe damage may be associated with a variety of correlates of violent behavior, including impulsivity, behavioral disinhibition, and poor concentration (Raine, 1993). Type II alcoholics are typically males with alcohol and criminal registrations. Moreover, violent recidivists were more likely to have experienced paternal absence than nonrecidivists, suggesting the importance of both biological and environmental factors in the prediction of recidivistic violent offending. Virkkunen and others (1996) report that a combination of paternal violence and alcoholism, as measured by questionnaires to the first-degree relatives, was associated with low CSF 5-HIAA concentration levels in the male subjects, irrespective of subgroup classification (i.e., impulsive vs. nonimpulsive). Grove and others investigated the concordance of antisocial problems, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), among a sample of thirty-two sets of monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA) who were adopted by nonrelatives shortly after birth. The biological fathers of these Type II alcoholics had an early onset (i.e., before age twenty-five) of recurrent alcoholism and criminality (sample size, n = 36). Further statistical analysis reveals that when these two groups are separated, there are significantly more criminal-only sons (without alcohol abuse) of criminal-only biological fathers than there are criminal-only sons of other fathers (8.9 percent vs. 4.9 percent, p (significance level) < 0.05). This seems to suggest that serotonin dysfunction may play an etiologic role in more severe forms of antisocial behavior, such as violent offending. In an Iowan adoption study (n = 246 male and female adoptees), Cadoret and Cain found that the presence of alcohol or antisocial symptoms in the biological parents interacted with adverse environmental conditions, such as the presence of alcohol and antisocial problems in the adoptive parents, time spent in foster care, and divorced status of the adoptive parents, to produce a marked increase in the incidence of adolescent antisocial behavior. Criminal behavior results from a complex interplay of social and biological factors. Results from more recent twin studies are largely in agreement with results obtained from earlier twin studies. Twin studies compare the rate of criminal behavior of twins who are genetically identical or monozygotic twins (MZ) with twins who are not, or dizygotic twins (DZ) in order to assess the role of genetic and environmental influences. A review of biochemical studies that have investigated the role of low serotonin concentrations in the emergence of criminal behavior follows. Biological Theories “Biological theories of crime focus on the physiological, biochemical, neurological, and genetic factors that influence criminal behavior. Consequently, any review of twin studies must keep these limitations in mind. Other, more direct measures of biological functioning, may provide additional information regarding the role of biological factors in the etiology of criminal behavior. But could his biology also have anything to do with it? When examining sons whose biological parents were convicted and adoptive parents remained law-abiding, however, 20 percent of the adoptees had one or more criminal convictions. ‘‘Heritability of Substance Abuse and Antisocial Behavior: A Study of Monozygotic Twins Reared Apart.’’, HALLIKAINEN, TERO; SAITO, TAKUTA; LACHMAN, HERBERT; and VOLAVKA, JAN. ‘‘Association between Low Activity Serotonin Transporter Promoter Genotype with Habitual Impulsive Violent Behavior among Antisocial Early Alcoholics.’’, HEINZ, ANDRES; HIGLEY, J. DEE; GOREY, JULIA; SAUNDERS, RICHARD C.; JONES, DOUGLAS; HOMMER, DANIEL; ZAJICEK, KRISTIN; SOUMI, STEPHEN; LESCH, KLAUS-PETER; WEINBERGER, DANIEL; and LINNOILA, MARKKU. ‘‘Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Delinquency of the Offspring: An Association Without Causation?’’, SIGVARDSSON, SOREN; BOHMAN, MICHAEL; and CLONINGER, C. ROBERT. To test this hypothesis, the Finnish criminal register was searched for all of the Helsinki residents born in the nine months after the 1957 influenza epidemic. Since the Second World War, biological theories have also been expanded to include other aspects: In addition to genetic and physiological investigations, biochemical and extensive neurological research in criminology has become increasingly important in recent decades. A number of theories have tried to explain why people take part in deviant behavior, which is defined as any behavior that goes against the dominant norms of society.Biological explanations, psychological reasons, and sociological factors have all been linked to such behavior, but three of the major biological explanations for deviancy have been discredited. The limitation of neuropsychological indices, however, is that they present an indirect measure of brain functioning. Fifteen pairs had at least one member of the sibship sustain a criminal conviction; of these 15 pairs, 3 pairs were concordant for convictions (concordance rate = 20 percent for full siblings). The recent finding that maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to criminal violence in exposed offspring, along with Rantakallio’s study, suggests the possibility that chemicals contained in cigarette smoke may alter fetal brain neurochemistry. Biological Theories of Criminal Activity These theories are offered by modern criminologist who relates the interaction in between surrounding social and physical environments with biological influences and how it in turn shapes behavioral propensity and criminal activities too. Environmental factors, such as low socioeconomic status and alcoholism in the adoptive parents, were not found to influence the frequency of Type II alcoholism. In a classic study, Heston followed up a sample of forty-seven offspring born to schizophrenic mothers and compared them to a group of matched controls from the same orphanage. The use of twin studies to test questions of heritablilty are limited in that it is a rare occurrence for the twins to be reared in separate environments. However, some traces still exist. There is some evidence to suggest that genetic and environmental factors may differentially contribute to the risk of criminality for males and females. Biological factors are more inclusive, consisting of physiological, biochemical, neurological, and genetic factors. Topic: Biological Theories of Crime PREPARED BY UMAIR 2. The findings indicate a linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes the mother smoked on a daily basis in her third trimester of pregnancy and the percent of offspring who became violent offenders. The ‘‘second-trimester schizophrenics’’ were interviewed and found to differ from noninfluenza exposed schizophrenics in that their symptom picture was dominated by suspiciousness and delusions (Machon and Mednick). crime. There were 126 male-male halfsibling pairs placed in separate adoptive homes. Preliminary findings led Bohman to conclude prematurely that biological fathers who were criminal only (without alcohol abuse) were not more likely to have criminal, adopted-away children than biological fathers with no criminal record (12.5 percent vs. 12 percent). As both Volavka and Hodgins suggest, delusional paranoid individuals are characterized by elevated levels of violent behavior. Since these offspring were not raised by their schizophrenic mothers, this suggested the possibility that mental illness and criminal violence may share a common genetic basis. 1995). With the Heston study in mind, Moffit investigated the role of parental mental illness in the emergence of violent offending among the Danish adopted-away sons. Subjects who had committed violent crimes during the 4.5-year follow-up period had lower CSF levels compared to nonrecidivists. The data thus far suggest that frontal lobe deficits may be marked among violent offenders. Moreover, the study relied on the Danish criminal register to identify cases where the individuals were arrested for property or violent offenses. ‘‘A Prospective Follow-up Study of Alcoholic Violent Offenders and Fire Setters.’’, VIRKKUNEN, MATTI; RAWLINGS, ROBERT; TOKOLA, RIITA; POLAND, RUSSELL; GUIDOTTI, ALESSANDRO; NEMEROFF, CHARLES; BISSETTE, GARTH; KALOGERAS, KONSTANTINE; KARONEN, SIRKKALIISA; and LINNOILA, MARKKU. The field of neuroscience, through the use of brain imaging techniques, has provided illuminating data on the etiology of severe mental disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. A marked increase of probandwise concordance for criminal behavior among monozygotic twins suggests that the MZ twins inherit some biological characteristic(s) that increases their joint risk for criminal involvement. The punishment of crime will be more severe than the punishment of deviance. Therefore, in this research paper, we will first discuss the role of genetics in the etiology of criminal behavior, followed by evidence outlining the importance of biological factors. The study yielded 40 male-male full-sibling pairs who were adopted into separate homes. View sample criminology research paper on biological theories of crime. A group of control adoptees were matched for age, sex, race, and approximate age at the time of adoption. ‘‘Second Trimester Influenza Virus Predicts to Violent but not Property Offending.’’ In TEHRANI, JASMINE A.; BRENNAN, PATRICIA A.; HODGINS, SHELEIGH; and MEDNICK, SARNOFF A. For example, chapter 3 deals with the field of phrenology, the popular 19th century notion of being able to understand character and conduct by examining the contours of the skull. The first subtype proposed by Cloninger, Type I alcoholism, appears to be affected by environmental factors, such as the socioeconomic status of the adoptive parents. Criminal behavior results from a complex interplay of social and biological factors. The significant genetic effect was specific to violent offenders. These conclusions, however, are drawn from a subject pool of forensic patients, representing a sample of heavily violent individuals. Other, more recent techniques, have been applied to uncover the structural and functional properties of the brain in relation to criminal behavior. Recently, an increasing amount of attention has been paid to pinpointing the gestational periods of highest risk for negative outcomes. II. ‘‘Alcoholism and Antisocial Personality: Interrelationships, Genetic and Environmental Factors.’’, CADORET, REMI; TROUGHTON, ED; and O’GORMAN, THOMAS. Although the popularity of such earlier biological theories has waned, research has continued, yielding important findings. Mednick, Gabrielli, and Hutchins carried out a study of the genetic influence on criminal behavior using an extensive data set consisting of 14,427 Danish adoptees (ranging in age from twenty-nine to fifty-two years) and both sets of biological and adoptive parents. Other adverse environmental influences, such as adoptive parental registrations for alcohol and crime, and later age of placement, were found to interact with the genetic risk for criminal behavior. One such teratogen that has been extensively investigated is the timing of maternal influenza exposure in relation to negative outcomes in the exposed fetuses. Earlier twin studies reported considerable variations in the pairwise concordance rates (among monozygotic twins from 100 percent to 25 percent and in dizygotic twins from 81 percent to 0 percent). If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Lombroso wanted to be able to detect future criminals in order to isolate them from the society. ‘‘CSF Biochemistries, Glucose Metabolism, and Diurnal Activity Rhythms in Alcoholic, Violent Offenders, Fire Setters and Healthy Volunteers.’’. In addition, the combination of genetic and environmental factors, or gene-environment interactions, has also been the subject of investigation. Relying on criminal arrest data, Cloninger and Gottesman reanalyzed the twin data collected by Christiansen and grouped subjects as either violent offenders or property offenders. ; Mednick et al.). Therefore, it is better to think of ‘biological factors’ rather than theories in explaining crime. This literature has been thoroughly reviewed by Raine. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates. Theories of Crime: Classical, Biological,… There are four basic theories of crime, and knowing and understanding each one is imperative for one to succeed in any legal profession. A significant increase in the rate of violent offending is noted only among offspring whose biological parents were severely criminal (typically the biological father) and had been hospitalized one or more times for a psychiatric condition (typically the biological mother). Recent molecular genetics studies report that a gene related to the serotonin system may be associated with increased risk for the cooccurrence of violence and alcoholism. In the past fifteen years, however, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the etiology of criminal behavior may be better understood when genetic and biological factors are also taken into account. Of the 126 male-male half-sibling pairs in the study 31 pairs had at least one member of the sibship convicted. These studies have primarily examined levels of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-HT metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, CSF 5-HIAA. Example. In contrast, the risk for property offenses in adopted-away sons of biological parents with alcohol problems was not significantly elevated. III. ‘‘Genetic-Environmental Interaction in the Genesis of Aggressivity and Conduct Disorders.’’, CAREY, GREGORY. 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These independent replications lend support to the notion that criminal behavior may have important genetic influences. Equally, recent criminal studies based on the biological theory of crime examine particular aspects of the central nervous system, hormones, and autonomic nervous system. On the basis of these findings, Virkkunen and colleagues propose that low serotonin may be a biological marker specific to impulsive violent offending accompanied by alcoholism. However, such theories also stress the complex link between a person's biology and the broad span of social or environmental factors that sociological theories examine” (Denno, 2009). Twins are more likely to exhibit similar tendencies toward criminality if they are identical (monozygotic) than if they are fraternal (dizygotic). One of the limitations of the biochemical studies is that CSF metabolites reflect presynaptic neurotransmitter activity; therefore, it is not known what is occurring at the postsynaptic level. That is why criminological theories role in explaining crimes is significant. The first adoption study to explore the genetic transmission of criminal behavior was carried out in Iowa by Crowe. Other disorders in the biological parents may also increase the risk of violent offending in the adopted-away offspring. Adoption studies have been carried out in three different countries: the United States, Sweden, and Denmark. If the adoptive parents were convicted and the biological parents were not, this figure only increased to 14.7 percent. Moreover, as the number of biological parental convictions increased, the rate of adoptees with court convictions increased. Well, we know that he lives in a poor neighborhood and has a rough relationship with his parents. The data have been replicated in numerous studies in various countries. To the present authors’ knowledge, only one modern twin study has employed this type of research design to test whether criminal behavior may be genetically mediated. The results indicated that property crime was not significantly associated with period of exposure to the influenza virus. Introduction of some types of teratogens, such as illegal drugs, alcohol, and nicotine, may represent substances that, regardless of when they are introduced, could potentially be harmful to the exposed fetus. Social disorganization theory: A person’s physical and social environments are primarily responsible for the behavioral choices that person makes. First, the genetic factors of interest, namely the antisocial status of the biological parents, were ascertained from ‘‘poorly maintained adoption agency records’’ or incomplete prison and hospital records. These offspring were separated from their mothers shortly after birth and placed in foster care or orphanages. These data suggest the possibility that the introduction of some type of teratogen during gestation may alter normal fetal development. Italian School biological explanations have not resonated in criminal justice systems in America. Adoption studies provide a natural experiment to test the existence and strength of inherited predispositions. These findings from our adoption cohort are in agreement with data from the Swedish adoption study, and support the overall interpretations from recent molecular genetic studies. Grove found substantial overlap between the genetic influences for both childhood conduct disorders (correlation of .41) and adult antisocial behaviors (correlation of .28). Cross-fostering Analysis of Gene-Environment Interaction.’’, CROWE, RAYMOND ‘‘An Adoption Study of Antisocial Behavior.’’, DALGAARD, OLE, and KRINGLEN, EINAR A. Such requirements, however, have been met by adoption studies from two Scandinavian countries, Denmark and Sweden. ‘‘Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Adult Male Criminal Outcomes.’’, CADORET, REMI, and CAIN, COLLEEN. There are reasons to suspect that these stressors or agents may operate differently depending on when they are introduced. Eleven (23.4 percent) of the adoptees had been incarcerated for violent offenses. The limitation of family studies is the inability to separate the genetic and environmental sources of variation. Accordingly, Mednick, Machon, and Huttenen (1996) hypothesized that maternal influenza during the second trimester was associated with an increased risk for violent offending, but not property offending among exposed fetuses. CRIME Definition Behaviour that breaks the formal laws of a given society. And Buss is one of the major psychologists associated with that. In short, what is needed is the use of criminal national registries that would provide a better opportunity to assess lifetime, cumulative records for all subjects (both biological and adoptive parents and adoptees). Adoptees are separated at birth from their biological parents. Seven of the fifty-two adoptees sustained a criminal conviction as adults whereas only one of the control adoptees had a conviction. Genetic factors, as determined by a biological background positive for criminality or mental illness, may represent one pathway through which the risk for a certain negative outcome is conferred. RAINE, ADRIAN. RANTAKALLIO, P.; LAARA, E.; ISOHANNI, M.; and MOILANEN, I. The advances and disadvantages of each method are thoroughly discussed in Raine (1993). 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